Black cowboys made up 1 in 4 workers in the range-cattle industry from the 1860s to 1880s, estimated to be between 6,000 and 9,000 workers. They were typically former slaves or born into the families of former slaves. Many black men had skills in cattle handling and headed West at the end of the Civil War. Though the industry generally treated black men equal to white men in terms of pay and responsibilities, discrimination persisted, though to a lesser extent than in other industries of the time. Northern California carries this tradition of Black Cowboys on, breaking stereotypes, and helping people to not forget.